This vessel, Mabrouk 3, is one of only four purse seiners controlled by a Saharawi. Billlal 3 at the top is one of the 71 such boats controlled by a Moroccan.Western Sahara Resource Watch (WSRW) has obtained a new list of coastal purse seiners licensed by the Moroccan authorities to fish the pelagic stocks off Dakhla, occupied Western Sahara.
The list is entitled "liste des senneurs côtiers autorisés à accéder à la pêcherie des petits pélagiques à partir de Dakhla au titre de la campagne de pêche 2018" - which translates to "list of coastal purse seiners authorized to take part in the small pelagic fishing off Dakhla for the 2018 fishing season".
A review of the list shows that Saharawis have a stake in only four of the 75 licensed vessels (thus 5% of the total available licenses): - The Aousserd 5, matrix 12-106, 97.83 gross tonnage, is part owned by Mohamed El Amine Daiedda, who is Saharawi. Daiedda has a 34% share in the vessel. - The Boulanwar, 12-96, with a gross tonnage of 129.95 is 100% owned by a Saharawi, called Sidi Sloh El Jomani. - The Jawharat el Bahr, 6/1-223, with a gross tonnage of 108.41, is part owned by a Saharawi: M'barek Hammia holds 35% ownership of the vessel. - The Mabrouk 3, 8-743, with a gross tonnage of 78.71, is fully owned by Zinni Bray, who is Saharawi.
The remaining 71 licensed vessels are all owned by Moroccans: most own a single vessel, though a few Moroccan families have obtained multiple licenses (e.g. the El Habza family, the Gourti and the Id Benjaa) for different boats.
The list is stamped by the Direction des Pêches Maritimes. Access the full list here, typed out in Excel.Dakhla is a fishing town located along the mid-coast of Western Sahara: the last colony in Africa. Morocco brutally invaded the territory in 1975 and went on to annex large parts of it - in spite of a clear opinion by the International Court of Justice refuting Morocco's claims to the territory, and hundreds of UN Resolutions calling for the Saharawi people's right to self-determination. Dakhla was occupied by Morocco in 1979, as Mauritanian occupying forces departed the Southern parts of Western Sahara. The UN General Assembly reacted to the Moroccan invasion of Dakhla by stating that it "deeply deplores the aggravation of the situation resulting from the continued occupation of Western Sahara by Morocco and the extension of that occupation to the territory recently evacuated by Mauritania", urging Morocco to "join the peace process and to terminate the occupation of the territory of Western Sahara" (UNGA resolution 34/37).
The Court repeated the findings of the ICJ - that Morocco has no sovereignty over Western Sahara. The EU institutions and Morocco have repeatedly stressed that trade in Western Sahara benefits the locals, but without clarifying whom those locals are. The CJEU judgment from 2016 was clear in its article 106 that the entire question of alleged 'benefits' to Western Sahara was not relevant when assessing the legality of EU-Moroccan operations in Western Sahara, but that such trade must first obtain the consent of the representatives of the territory.
International human rights NGOs and several UN bodies have all described Western Sahara as a human rights dark spot. Basic human rights violations are rampant, and the social and economic discrimination of Saharawis by the Moroccan authorities are well documented, e.g. by UN Special Rapporteur on the right to food Hilal Elver who visited Dakhla. In her end-of-mission statement, Elver noted that the people of Western Sahara were not equally benefitting from the economic projects that Morocco was undertaking in the territory.
Those findings are once again supported by the list of fishing licenses obtained by WSRW.
The total gross tonnage of this Moroccan fleet that is authorised to fish off Dakhla is 6,989.25 tonnes. The vessels that are owned or part-owned by Saharawis have a total of 279.87 tonnes - or 4% of the total gross tonnage. Gross tonnage is a measure describing a vessel's internal volume, i.e. how much tonnes of fish it can carry.
All vessels in the list are seiners - a vessel using a method of fishing that employs a fishing net called a seine, that hangs vertically in the water with its bottom edge held down by weights and its top edge buoyed by floats. The vessels are authorised to fish the small pelagic stocks of Dakhla such as herrings and sardines.
Since you're here.... WSRW’s work is being read and used more than ever. But our financial situation is tough. Our work takes time, dedication and diligence. But we do it because we believe it matters – and we hope you do to. If everyone who reads our website or likes us on Facebook, would contribute to our work – 3€, 5€, 27€ … what you can spare – the future of WSRW would be much more secure. You can donate to WSRW in less than a minute here.
Morocco occupies the major part of its neighbouring country, Western Sahara. Entering into business deals with Moroccan companies or authorities in the occupied territories gives an impression of political legitimacy to the occupation. It also gives job opportunities to Moroccan settlers and income to the Moroccan government. Western Sahara Resource Watch demands foreign companies leave Western Sahara until a solution to the conflict is found.
It's not easy keeping up with all the different legal proceedings relating to Western Sahara. For the sake of clarity, here's an overview of the five different cases at the Court of Justice of the European Union.
Leading activists from Western Sahara are condemned to sentences ranging from 20 years to life imprisonment in connection to a mass protest in 2010 denouncing the Saharawi people’s social and economic marginalization in their occupied land; the Gdeim Izik protest camp.
At COP22, beware of what you read about Morocco’s renewable energy efforts. An increasing part of the projects take place in the occupied territory of Western Sahara and is used for mineral plunder, new WSRW report documents.